Telemedicine has emerged as a revolutionary solution to improve access to healthcare for underserved communities and remote locations. Artificial Intelligence (AI) adds a new dimension to this rapidly growing field by enhancing remote patient monitoring, consultation, diagnosis, and workflow optimization . This article explores the role of AI in telemedicine and the potential to bridge healthcare gaps across the globe.
AI-Driven Diagnostics: Facilitating Accurate Remote Assessment
The integration of AI-driven diagnostics is a significant advancement in telemedicine. This technology has the potential to address the situation when a healthcare professional is unavailable offline or a patient can’t be physically co-located. AI algorithms are deployed for this purpose, trained on extensive datasets that include medical images like X-rays, MRI and CT scans, lab results, medical records, and more. These algorithms can detect disease-specific patterns in various fields, including cardiology, oncology, pathology, and radiology . Although the accuracy of such tools can fluctuate based on the specific medical condition, the algorithm employed, and the quality of training data, numerous studies have indicated that AI-driven diagnostics can empower healthcare providers to remotely assess patient health with precision, enhancing early disease detection and clinical decision-making.
For instance, an AI-powered wound assessment device called Wound Viewer was clinically validated in a trial involving 150 patients with different types of wounds. It uses dedicated sensors and AI algorithms to remotely collect and analyze wound images, evaluating wound areas, depth, volume and classification based on the Wound Bed Preparation protocol. The results were then compared against physician-performed wound classification and tissue segmentation analysis, with a 97% accuracy rate achieved. The trial showed that remote wound assessment using AI technology is as effective as bedside examination, reducing the risk of human error while maintaining high-quality clinical data .
Another study published in Nature suggests that AI algorithms have exhibited potential in remotely diagnosing skin cancers like melanoma. This research explores the effectiveness of a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), a type of deep learning algorithm, in identifying complex skin lesions that often resemble melanomas. The CNN, which learns directly from pixel images and disease labels, is capable of differentiating between fine-grained variations in skin lesion appearance, a task traditionally challenging for automated systems. A single CNN was trained with a vast dataset of 129,450 clinical images, covering 2,032 different diseases. Based on the collected results, the CNN showed a sensitivity, or true positive rate, of 97.1% and a specificity, or true negative rate, of 78.8%. In comparison, dermatologists had a lower average sensitivity of 90.6% and specificity of 71%. It suggests that when integrated with mobile devices, the CNN offers the potential to extend the reach of professional healthcare to rural areas, providing universal access to crucial diagnostic care. .
Smart Patient Monitoring: Real-Time Insights for Improved Care
Today, Smart Wearables and Remote Patient Monitoring (RPM) powered by AI, go beyond mere data reporting. They are designed with the ability to scan for anomalies and flag abnormal readings to the relevant parties. By continuously collecting data, smart wearable devices offer healthcare providers valuable resources related to patients' lifestyles and behavior patterns. Instances of such advanced analyses include electroencephalogram (EEG), electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG), respiration, heart rate, temperature level, blood oxygen, blood pressure, sleep cycles, etc. When it comes to managing chronic conditions, these capabilities not only empower healthcare providers to keep a thorough watch on their patients, but also facilitate early detection and elimination of potential health problems based on vital indicators spotlighted in the data report . Given these advantages, 57% of healthcare professionals joining MIT survey expressed interest in deploying AI-enabled wearables, with more than half already doing so .
One notable breakthrough in this field is smartwatches. In a study conducted by the University of California, smartwatches were used to gather heart rate and step count data from participants. This data was used to train a deep neural network through heuristic pretraining - a technique that approximates representations of the R-R interval, or the time between heartbeats, without the need for manually labelling the training data. The algorithm was validated against the gold standard of 12-lead ECG readings from a separate group of patients. It has been found that smartwatches can detect atrial fibrillation (AFib), an irregular heartbeat type that can lead to stroke. According to this study, smartwatches correctly identified people with AFib 97% of the time, and accurately ruled out AFib in people who did not have the condition 98% of the time. Hence, smartwatches show the potential to provide healthcare professionals with real-time heart rhythm data, enabling early detection of persistent atrial fibrillation. Such early detection could improve patient outcomes through prompt intervention and treatment adjustments. .
Patient experience enhancement is a continuous goal for hospitals, with hospital readmission rates being a major factor. A six-year-long study, including data from nearly 3,000 acute-care hospitals, suggested that efficient caregiver-patient communication is the key to reducing readmissions . This is where RPM shines. The use of smart RPM devices like glucometer, thermometer, and ECG + Stethoscope by patients at home has enabled healthcare providers to access daily health records and consult or intervene promptly, ensuring no step is missed in the patient's recovery journey. This approach has shown a positive impact by reducing hospital readmission penalties. For instance, the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center decreased the risk of hospital readmissions by 76% and kept patient satisfaction scores above 90% by providing patients with tablets and RPM devices . A KLAS Research Survey, which included 25 healthcare organizations, found that 38% of the organizations implementing RPM programs focused on chronic care management reported a reduction in admissions and all-cause mortality compared with usual care .
Automating Administrative Workflow: Enhancing Efficiency and Allocating Resources Better
Healthcare professionals worldwide face numerous challenges in their daily work. It is revealed that 44% of doctors experience physical fatigue . Doctors normally spend half of their typical 11.4-hour workday on clerical and administrative duties . This is understandable, considering the high volume of patients they handle and the significant time dedicated to EHR (Electronic Health Record) documentation tasks. This, by chance ultimately affects the quality of time spent with patients, their primary focus. Nonetheless, there are multiple ways AI can step in and improve the situation.
Tools like automated charting software can streamline data visualization by automatically extracting, organizing, and presenting information from electronic health records, laboratory results, and pharmacy records. This reduces documentation time and allows healthcare professionals to devote more time to patient care. This ability aids in standardizing data and understanding the entire patient's health journey. One successful evidence of utilizing this technology in building a digital command center is Johns Hopkins Hospital. By implementing predictive analytics and innovative problem-solving into workflow management, it witnesses a 46% increase in the capacity to accept complex cases from other hospitals, a 38% speed increase in assigning beds to emergency department patients (saving 3.5 hours), and an 83% reduction in transfer delays from the operating room .
Virtual health assistants, another implementation of AI and machine learning, are showing a great impact on reducing administrative burdens. They can handle tasks such as note-taking during consultations, managing patient records, scheduling appointments, answering patient queries, and providing medication reminders. These applications integrate with EHRs, not only enabling doctors to access data seamlessly without errors but also automating customer support with contextual help. Notably, over a span of 18 months, an intelligent virtual assistant was reported to help a hospital decrease physician order entry errors by about 30%, thereby significantly enhancing the overall medical order process .
The Ethical Considerations: Balancing Benefits and Risks
AI in telemedicine presents an exciting opportunity to enhance healthcare access and service delivery, but its potential benefits need to be carefully balanced against associated ethical considerations. These include concerns surrounding data privacy, algorithmic biases, and potential misuse. Public and non-profit institutions bear the responsibility of formulating regulatory guidelines to safeguard against these ethical challenges, fostering an environment conducive to the responsible adoption of AI in telemedicine.
It's important to remember that AI, while transformative, is still evolving, and its application in healthcare requires thorough supervision from relevant experts. The goal isn't to replace healthcare professionals but rather to harness the capabilities of AI in complementing their efforts, ultimately improving patient care outcomes.
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- [Geoffrey H. Tison, M. (2018) Passive detection of atrial fibrillation using a commercially available smartwatch, JAMA Cardiology. Available at: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamacardiology/fullarticle/2675364 (Accessed: 21 May 2023).]
- Hopkins Medicine. Capacity Command Center Celebrates 5 Years of Improving Patient Safety Access. ]
- Tech Target. Hospital uses intelligent virtual assistant for more accurate order entry